Modular pipelines

What are modular pipelines?

In many typical Kedro projects, a single (“main”) pipeline increases in complexity as the project evolves. To keep your project fit for purpose, we recommend that you create modular pipelines, which are logically isolated and can be reused. Modular pipelines are easier to develop, test and maintain, and are portable so they can be copied and reused between projects.

How do I create a modular pipeline?

You can use a project-specific CLI command to create a modular pipeline. The pipeline name must adhere to generic Python module naming rules:

  • Can only contain alphanumeric characters and underscores (A-Za-z0-9_)

  • Must start with a letter or underscore

  • Must be at least 2 characters long


Since kedro pipeline is a group of project-specific commands, those will only show up when your current working directory is the project root. If you see an error message like Error: No such command 'pipeline', this indicates that your working directory does not point to a valid Kedro project.

For the full list of available CLI options, you can always run kedro pipeline create --help for more information.

kedro pipeline create <pipeline_name>


Although Kedro does not enforce the following project structure, we strongly encourage that you use it when you develop your modular pipelines. Future versions of Kedro may assume this structure.

The kedro pipeline create <pipeline_name> command creates the following:

A modular pipeline in a subfolder

The command creates a modular pipeline in src/<python_package>/pipelines/<pipeline_name>/. The folder contains the following files:

  • to make Python treat the code in the subfolder as a module

  • boilerplate for you to record information regarding the pipeline’s execution

  • as a location for you to add code for the nodes in your new modular pipeline

  • to expose the create_pipeline function at the top-level of the module. Calling create_pipeline with no arguments should return an instance of a Pipeline:

from <project-name>.pipelines import my_modular_pipeline_1

pipeline = my_modular_pipeline_1.create_pipeline()

When you run kedro pipeline create it does not automatically add a corresponding entry to register_pipelines() in src/<python_package>/

In order to make your new pipeline runnable (using the kedro run --pipeline <pipeline_name> CLI command, for example), you need to modify src/<python_package>/ yourself.

Boilerplate configuration files

The kedro pipeline create <pipeline_name> command also creates a boilerplate parameter configuration file, <pipeline_name>.yml, in conf/<env>/parameters/, where <env> defaults to base.

The project configuration from conf/base/parameters/<pipeline_name>.yml is automatically discoverable by KedroContext and requires no manual change.

A placeholder folder for unit tests

Finally, kedro pipeline create <pipeline_name> also creates a placeholder for the pipeline unit tests in src/tests/pipelines/<pipeline_name>/.


For ease of use and portability, consider these recommendations as you develop a modular pipeline:

  • A modular pipeline should include a, with all the information regarding its execution

  • A modular pipeline may have external dependencies specified in requirements.txt. These dependencies are not currently installed by the kedro install command, so users of your pipeline would have to run pip install -r src/<python_package>/pipelines/<pipeline_name>/requirements.txt before using the pipeline

  • To ensure portability, modular pipelines should use relative imports when accessing their own objects and absolute imports otherwise. For example, in

from external_package import add  # importing from external package
from kedro.pipeline import node, Pipeline

from .nodes import node1_func, node2_func  # importing its own node functions

def create_pipeline():
    node1 = node(func=node1_func, inputs="a", outputs="b")
    node2 = node(func=node2_func, inputs="c", outputs="d")
    node3 = node(func=add, inputs=["b", "d"], outputs="sum")
    return Pipeline([node1, node2, node3])
  • Modular pipelines should not depend on the main Python package (new_kedro_project in this example) as this would break portability to another project

  • Modular pipelines should be registered and stitched together in a main (or __default__) pipeline located in src/new_kedro_project/

The following example, illustrates how to import and instantiate two modular pipelines (modular_pipeline_1 and modular_pipeline_2) within src/new_kedro_project/

from typing import Dict

from kedro.pipeline import Pipeline

from new_kedro_project.pipelines import (
    modular_pipeline_1 as mp1,
    modular_pipeline_2 as mp2,

def register_pipelines() -> Dict[str, Pipeline]:
    pipeline1 = mp1.create_pipeline()
    pipeline2 = mp2.create_pipeline()
    pipeline_all = pipeline1 + pipeline2
    return {"mp1": pipeline1, "mp2": pipeline2, "__default__": pipeline_all}

To run a pipeline by name from the command line:

kedro run --pipeline mp2

How to share a modular pipeline

Package a modular pipeline

Since Kedro 0.16.4 you can package a modular pipeline by executing kedro pipeline package <pipeline_name> command, which will generate a new wheel file for it. By default, the wheel file will be saved into src/dist directory inside your project, however this can be changed using the --destination (-d) option.

When you package your modular pipeline, Kedro will also automatically package files from 3 locations:

  • All the modular pipeline code in src/<python_package>/pipelines/<pipeline_name>/

  • Parameter files that match either the glob pattern conf/<env>/parameters*/**/<pipeline_name>.yml or conf/<env>/parameters*/**/<pipeline_name>/*, where <env> defaults to base. If you need to capture the parameters from a different config environment, run kedro pipeline package --env <env_name> <pipeline_name>

  • Pipeline unit tests in src/tests/pipelines/<pipeline_name>

Kedro will also include any requirements found in src/<python_package>/pipelines/<pipeline_name>/requirements.txt in the modular pipeline wheel file. These requirements will later be taken into account when pulling a pipeline via kedro pipeline pull.


Kedro will not package the catalog config files even if those are present in conf/<env>/catalog/<pipeline_name>.yml.

If you plan to publish your packaged modular pipeline to some Python package repository like PyPI, you need to make sure that your modular pipeline name doesn’t clash with any of the existing packages in that repository. However, there is no need to rename any of your source files if that is the case. Simply alias your package with a new name by running kedro pipeline package --alias <new_package_name> <pipeline_name>.

In addition to PyPI, you can also share the packaged wheel file directly, or via a cloud storage such as AWS S3.

Package multiple modular pipelines

To package multiple modular pipelines in bulk, run kedro pipeline package --all. This will package all pipelines specified in the tool.kedro.pipeline.package manifest section of the project’s pyproject.toml file:

first_pipeline = {alias = "aliased_pipeline", destination = "somewhere/else", env = "uat"}
second_pipeline = {}

Here the keys (e.g. first_pipeline, second_pipeline) are the modular pipelines’ folder names, and the values are the options that kedro pipeline package <pipeline_name> accepts.


Make sure destination is specified as a POSIX path even when working on a Windows machine.

Pull a modular pipeline

You can pull a modular pipeline from a wheel file by executing kedro pipeline pull <package_name>, where <package_name> is either a package name on PyPI or a path to the wheel file. Kedro will unpack the wheel file, and install the files in following locations in your Kedro project:

  • All the modular pipeline code in src/<python_package>/pipelines/<pipeline_name>/

  • Configuration files in conf/<env>/parameters/<pipeline_name>.yml, where <env> defaults to base. If you want to place the parameters from a different config environment, run kedro pipeline pull <pipeline_name> --env <env_name>

  • Pipeline unit tests in src/tests/pipelines/<pipeline_name>

Kedro will also parse any requirements packaged with the modular pipeline and add them to project level It is advised to do kedro install --build-reqs to compile and install the updated list of requirements after pulling a modular pipeline.


If a modular pipeline has embedded requirements and a project file does not already exist, it will be generated based on the project requirements.txt before appending the modular pipeline requirements.

You can pull a modular pipeline from different locations, including local storage, PyPI and the cloud:

  • Pulling a modular pipeline from a local directory:

kedro pipeline pull <path-to-your-project-root>/src/dist/<pipeline_name>-0.1-py3-none-any.whl
  • Pulling a modular pipeline from S3:

kedro pipeline pull https://<bucket_name>.s3.<aws-region><pipeline_name>-0.1-py3-none-any.whl
  • Pulling a modular pipeline from PyPI:

kedro pipeline pull <pypi-package-name>

If you are pulling the pipeline from a location that isn’t PyPI, Kedro uses fsspec to locate and pull down your pipeline. If you need to provide any fsspec-specific arguments (say, if you’re pulling your pipeline down from an S3 bucket and want to provide the S3 credentials inline or from a local server that requires tokens in the header) then you can use the --fs-args option to point to a YAML (or any anyconfig-supported configuration) file that contains the required configuration.

kedro pipeline pull https://<url-to-pipeline.whl> --fs-args pipeline_pull_args.yml


# pipeline_pull_args.yml
    Authorization: token <token>

Pull multiple modular pipelines

To pull multiple modular pipelines in bulk, run kedro pipeline pull --all. This will pull and unpack all pipelines specified in the tool.kedro.pipeline.pull manifest section of the project’s pyproject.toml file:

"src/dist/first-pipeline-0.1-py3-none-any.whl" = {}
"" = {alias = "aliased_pipeline", fs-args = "pipeline_pull_args.yml"}

Here the keys are the package paths, and the values are the options that kedro pipeline pull <package_path> accepts. Package paths can be any of the locations allowed by kedro pipeline pull, including local storage, PyPI and the cloud.


As per the TOML specification, a key that contains any character outside A-Za-z0-9_- must be quoted.

A modular pipeline example template

Here is an example of a modular pipeline which combines all of these concepts within a Kedro project:

  • The modular pipelines:

    • src/new_kedro_project/pipelines/data_engineering - A pipeline that imputes missing data and discovers outlier data points

    • src/new_kedro_project/pipelines/feature_engineering - A pipeline that generates temporal features while aggregating data and performs a train/test split on the data

    • src/new_kedro_project/pipelines/modelling - A pipeline that fits models, does hyperparameter search and reports on model performance

  • A main (or __default__) pipeline:

    • src/new_kedro_project/ - combines 3 modular pipelines from the above

Click to expand
├── .ipython/
├── conf/
├── data/
├── docs/
├── logs/
├── notebooks/
├── src
│   ├── new_kedro_project
│   │   ├── pipelines
│   │   │   ├── data_engineering
│   │   │   │   ├──
│   │   │   │   ├──
│   │   │   │   ├──
│   │   │   │   ├── requirements.txt
│   │   │   │   └──
│   │   │   ├── feature_engineering
│   │   │   │   ├──
│   │   │   │   ├──
│   │   │   │   ├──
│   │   │   │   ├── requirements.txt
│   │   │   │   └──
│   │   │   ├── modelling
│   │   │   │   ├──
│   │   │   │   ├──
│   │   │   │   ├──
│   │   │   │   ├── requirements.txt
│   │   │   │   └──
│   │   │   └──
│   │   ├──
|   |   ├──
│   │   ├──
│   │   ├──
│   │   ├──
|   |   └──
│   ├── tests
│   │   ├──
│   │   ├── pipelines
│   │   │   ├── data_engineering
│   │   │   │   ├──
│   │   │   │   └──
│   │   │   ├── feature_engineering
│   │   │   │   ├──
│   │   │   │   └──
│   │   │   ├── modelling
│   │   │   │   ├──
│   │   │   │   └──
│   │   └──
│   ├── requirements.txt
│   └──
├── pyproject.toml
└── setup.cfg


Nested configuration in modular pipelines is not supported by Kedro. It means that putting config files (like catalog.yml) in src/<python_package>/pipelines/<pipeline_name>/conf will have no effect on the Kedro project configuration, however you may document it as a custom step that other users must complete as part of setting up your modular pipeline.

If you plan to manually hand off your modular pipeline to another project, you should document the configuration used by the pipeline in the of your modular pipeline. For example, you may copy your configuration into the modular pipeline location before the pipeline hand off and instruct the users to copy catalog.yml into their top-level configuration:

mkdir conf/base/catalog/  # create a separate folder for the pipeline configs
cp src/<python_package>/pipelines/data_engineering/conf/catalog.yml conf/base/catalog/data_engineering.yml  # copy the pipeline configs


It is important to keep in mind that Kedro resolves the execution order of your pipeline’s node based on their input and output datasets.

For example, if node1 outputs the dataset A, and node2 requires the dataset A as an input, then node1 is guaranteed to be executed before node2 when Kedro runs the pipeline.

As a modular pipeline developer, you may not know how your pipeline will be integrated in the downstream projects and what data catalog configuration they may have. Therefore, it is crucial to make it clear in the pipeline documentation what datasets (names and types) are required as inputs by your modular pipeline and what datasets it produces as outputs.

How to connect existing pipelines

When two existing pipelines need to work together, they should be connected by the input and output datasets. But the names might be different, requiring manual fixes to be applied to the pipeline itself. An alternative solution would be to use pipeline(), the modular pipelines connector.

You can think of pipeline() as an equivalent to node(), which accepts an underlying function, inputs and outputs, and returns a Node object. Similarly, pipeline() accepts the underlying pipeline, inputs and outputs, and returns a Pipeline object.

Consider this example:

cook_pipeline = Pipeline(
    [node(defrost, "frozen_meat", "meat"), node(grill, "meat", "grilled_meat")]

lunch_pipeline = Pipeline([node(eat, "food", None)])

A simple cook_pipeline + lunch_pipeline doesn’t work, because the grilled_meat output in the cook_pipeline needs to be mapped to the food input in the lunch_pipeline. This can be done in any of the following three (equivalent) ways:

from kedro.pipeline import pipeline

final_pipeline1 = (
    pipeline(cook_pipeline, outputs={"grilled_meat": "food"}) + lunch_pipeline

# or
final_pipeline2 = cook_pipeline + pipeline(
    lunch_pipeline, inputs={"food": "grilled_meat"}

# or
final_pipeline3 = pipeline(
    cook_pipeline, outputs={"grilled_meat": "new_name"}
) + pipeline(lunch_pipeline, inputs={"food": "new_name"})

Remember you can pass Pipeline objects in the constructor as well, like in the example below. This approach is cleaner and more idiomatic when you are combining multiple modular pipelines together.

final_pipeline = Pipeline(
        pipeline(cook_pipeline, outputs={"grilled_meat": "new_name"}),
        pipeline(lunch_pipeline, inputs={"food": "new_name"}),

The sum syntax is also supported for connecting pipelines. Similar to the previous example, using the sum syntax:

final_pipeline = sum(
        pipeline(cook_pipeline, outputs={"grilled_meat": "new_name"}),
        pipeline(lunch_pipeline, inputs={"food": "new_name"}),

# equivalent to
final_pipeline = (
    pipeline(cook_pipeline, outputs={"grilled_meat": "new_name"})
    + pipeline(lunch_pipeline, inputs={"food": "new_name"}),


inputs should correspond to the pipeline free inputs, while outputs are either free or intermediary outputs.

How to use a modular pipeline twice

Consider the example:

cook_pipeline = Pipeline(
        node(defrost, "frozen_meat", "meat", name="defrost_node"),
        node(grill, "meat", "grilled_meat"),

eat_breakfast_pipeline = Pipeline([node(eat_breakfast, "breakfast_food", None)])
eat_lunch_pipeline = Pipeline([node(eat_lunch, "lunch_food", None)])

Now we need to “defrost” two different types of food and input to different pipelines. But we can’t use the cook_pipeline twice because the internal dataset names will conflict. We might try to call pipeline() and map all datasets, but the conflict from the explicitly set name="defrost_node" remains.

Here is a solution that uses a namespace:

cook_breakfast_pipeline = pipeline(
    inputs="frozen_meat",  # inputs stay the same, don't namespace
    outputs={"grilled_meat": "breakfast_food"},
cook_lunch_pipeline = pipeline(
    inputs="frozen_meat",  # inputs stay the same, don't namespace
    outputs={"grilled_meat": "lunch_food"},

final_pipeline = (
    + eat_breakfast_pipeline
    + cook_lunch_pipeline
    + eat_lunch_pipeline

namespace="lunch" renames all datasets and nodes, prefixing them with "lunch.", except those datasets that we explicitly “freeze” (frozen_meat) or remap (grilled_meat).

Remapping free outputs is required since “breakfast_food” and “lunch_food” are the names expected by the eat_breakfast_pipeline and eat_lunch_pipeline respectively.

The resulting pipeline now has two separate nodes, breakfast.defrost_node and lunch.defrost_node. Also two separate datasets breakfast.meat and lunch.meat connect the nodes inside the pipelines, causing no confusion between them.

Note that pipeline() will skip prefixing when node inputs contain parameter references (params: and parameters).

For example:

raw_pipeline = Pipeline([node(node_func, ["input", "params:x"], "output")])
final_pipeline = pipeline(raw_pipeline, namespace="new")
# `final_pipeline` will be `Pipeline([node(node_func, ["new.input", "params:x"], "new.output")])`

How to use a modular pipeline with different parameters

You can map parameter values in a similar way to inputs and outputs. Let’s say you have two almost identical pipelines that differ by one parameter. You want to run the pipelines on the same set of inputs.

alpha_pipeline = Pipeline(
        node(node_func1, ["input1", "input2", "params:alpha"], "intermediary_output"),
        node(node_func2, "intermediary_output", "output"),
beta_pipeline = pipeline(
    inputs={"input1", "input2"},
    parameters={"params:alpha": "params:beta"},

final_pipeline = alpha_pipeline + beta_pipeline

The value of parameter alpha is replaced with the value of parameter beta, assuming they both live in your parameters configuration (parameters.yml). The namespace ensures that outputs are not overwritten, so intermediate and final outputs are prefixed, i.e. beta.intermediary_output, beta.output.

How to clean up a modular pipeline

You can manually delete all the files that belong to a modular pipeline. However, Kedro also provides a CLI command to clean up automatically. It deletes the following files when you call kedro pipeline delete <pipeline_name>:

  • All the modular pipeline code in src/<python_package>/pipelines/<pipeline_name>/

  • Configuration files conf/<env>/parameters/<pipeline_name>.yml and conf/<env>/catalog/<pipeline_name>.yml, where <env> defaults to base. If the files are located in a different config environment, run kedro pipeline delete <pipeline_name> --env <env_name>.

  • Pipeline unit tests in tests/pipelines/<pipeline_name>/


kedro pipeline delete won’t remove the entry from if you have imported the modular pipeline there. You must remove it manually to clean up, otherwise it will break your project because the import will raise an error.