Deployment with AWS Batch

Why would you use AWS Batch?

AWS Batch is optimised for batch computing and applications that scale with the number of jobs running in parallel. It manages job execution and compute resources, and dynamically provisions the optimal quantity and type. AWS Batch can assist with planning, scheduling, and executing your batch computing workloads, using Amazon EC2 On-Demand and Spot Instances, and it has native integration with CloudWatch for log collection.

AWS Batch helps you run massively parallel Kedro pipelines in a cost-effective way, and allows you to parallelise the pipeline execution across a number of compute instances. Each Batch job is run in an isolated Docker container environment.

The following sections are a guide on how to deploy a Kedro project to AWS Batch, and uses the spaceflights tutorial as primary example. The guide assumes that you have already completed the tutorial, and that the project was created with the project name Kedro Tutorial.


To use AWS Batch, make sure you have the following prerequisites in place:

  • An AWS account set up.
  • A name attribute is set for each Kedro node. Each node will run in its own Batch job, so having sensible node names will make it easier to kedro run --node <node_name>.
  • All node input/output DataSets must be configured in catalog.yml and refer to an external location (e.g. AWS S3). A clean way to do this is to create a new configuration environment conf/aws_batch containing a catalog.yml file with the appropriate configuration, as illustrated below.
Click to expand
  type: pandas.CSVDataSet
  filepath: s3://<your-bucket>/companies.csv

  type: pandas.CSVDataSet
  filepath: s3://<your-bucket>/reviews.csv

  type: pandas.ExcelDataSet
  filepath: s3://<your-bucket>/shuttles.xlsx

  type: pandas.CSVDataSet
  filepath: s3://<your-bucket>/preprocessed_companies.csv

  type: pandas.CSVDataSet
  filepath: s3://<your-bucket>/preprocessed_shuttles.csv

  type: pandas.CSVDataSet
  filepath: s3://<your-bucket>/master_table.csv

  type: pickle.PickleDataSet
  filepath: s3://<your-bucket>/regressor.pickle
  versioned: true

  type: pickle.PickleDataSet
  filepath: s3://<your-bucket>/X_train.pickle

  type: pickle.PickleDataSet
  filepath: s3://<your-bucket>/X_test.pickle

  type: pickle.PickleDataSet
  filepath: s3://<your-bucket>/y_train.pickle

  type: pickle.PickleDataSet
  filepath: s3://<your-bucket>/y_test.pickle

How to run a Kedro pipeline using AWS Batch

Containerise your Kedro project

First, you need to containerise your Kedro project, using any preferred container solution (e.g. Docker), to build an image to use in AWS Batch.

For the purpose of this walk-through, we are going to assume a Docker workflow. We recommend using the Kedro-Docker plugin to streamline the process. Instructions for using this are in the plugin’s

After you’ve built the Docker image for your project locally, transfer the image to a container registry, for instance AWS ECR. You can find instructions on how to push your Docker image to ECR in Amazon’s ECR documentation.

Alternatively, once you’ve created a container repository, click the View Push Commands button in the top-right corner of the ECR dashboard.

Provision resources

In order to be able to deploy your pipeline to Batch, you need to provision the following four resources in advance:

Create IAM Role

If you are storing your datasets to S3, you first need to create an IAM role to be able to grant Batch access to read and write to the respective locations. Follow the instructions from the AWS tutorial on how to do so, but note that the policy (step 3) should be AmazonS3FullAccess. Name the newly-created IAM role batchJobRole.

Create AWS Batch job definition

Job definitions provide the template for resources needed for running a job. Create a job definition named kedro_run, assign it the newly created batchJobRole IAM role, the container image you’ve packaged above, execution timeout of 300s and 2000MB of memory. You can leave the Command field empty and all the defaults in place.

Create AWS Batch compute environment

Next you need a compute environment where the work will be executed. Create a managed, on-demand one named spaceflights_env and let it choose to create new service and instance roles if you don’t have any yet. Having a managed environment means that AWS will automatically handle the scaling of your instances.

Note: This compute environment won’t contain any instances until you trigger the pipeline run. Therefore, creating it does not incur any immediate costs.

Create AWS Batch job queue

A job queue is the bridge between the submitted jobs and the compute environment they should run on. Create a queue named spaceflights_queue, connected to your newly created compute environment spaceflights_env, and give it Priority 1.

Configure the credentials

Ensure you have the necessary AWS credentials in place before moving on, so that your pipeline can access and interact with the AWS services. Check out the AWS CLI documentation for instructions on how to set this up.

Note: You should configure the default region to match the region where you’ve created the Batch resources.

Submit AWS Batch jobs

Now that all the resources are in place, it’s time to submit jobs to Batch programmatically, using the newly-created job definition and job queue. Each job will correspond to running one node, and in order to maintain the correct order of execution, you’ll need to specify the dependencies (job IDs) of each submitted job. You can leverage a custom runner for this step.

Create a custom runner

Create a new Python package runner in your src folder, i.e. kedro_tutorial/src/kedro_tutorial/runner/. Make sure there is an file at this location and add another file named, which will contain the implementation of your custom runner, AWSBatchRunner. The AWSBatchRunner will submit and monitor jobs asynchronously, surfacing any errors that occur on Batch.

Make sure the file in the runner folder includes the following import:

from .batch_runner import AWSBatchRunner  # NOQA

Copy the contents of the script below into

from concurrent.futures import ThreadPoolExecutor
from time import sleep
from typing import Any, Dict, Set

import boto3

from import DataCatalog
from kedro.pipeline.pipeline import Pipeline, Node
from kedro.runner import ThreadRunner

class AWSBatchRunner(ThreadRunner):
    def __init__(
        max_workers: int = None,
        job_queue: str = None,
        job_definition: str = None,
        is_async: bool = False,
        super().__init__(max_workers, is_async=is_async)
        self._job_queue = job_queue
        self._job_definition = job_definition
        self._client = boto3.client("batch")

    def create_default_data_set(self, ds_name: str):
        raise NotImplementedError("All datasets must be defined in the catalog")

    def _get_required_workers_count(self, pipeline: Pipeline):
        if self._max_workers is not None:
            return self._max_workers

        return super()._get_required_workers_count(pipeline)

    def _run(  # pylint: disable=too-many-locals,useless-suppression
        self, pipeline: Pipeline, catalog: DataCatalog, run_id: str = None
    ) -> None:
        nodes = pipeline.nodes
        node_dependencies = pipeline.node_dependencies
        todo_nodes = set(node_dependencies.keys())
        node_to_job = dict()
        done_nodes = set()  # type: Set[Node]
        futures = set()
        max_workers = self._get_required_workers_count(pipeline)"Max workers: %d", max_workers)
        with ThreadPoolExecutor(max_workers=max_workers) as pool:
            while True:
                # Process the nodes that have completed, i.e. jobs that reached
                # FAILED or SUCCEEDED state
                done = {fut for fut in futures if fut.done()}
                futures -= done
                for future in done:
                        node = future.result()
                    except Exception:
                        self._suggest_resume_scenario(pipeline, done_nodes)
                        "Completed %d out of %d jobs", len(done_nodes), len(nodes)

                # A node is ready to be run if all its upstream dependencies have been
                # submitted to Batch, i.e. all node dependencies were assigned a job ID
                ready = {
                    n for n in todo_nodes if node_dependencies[n] <= node_to_job.keys()
                todo_nodes -= ready
                # Asynchronously submit Batch jobs
                for node in ready:
                    future = pool.submit(

                # If no more nodes left to run, ensure the entire pipeline was run
                if not futures:
                    assert not todo_nodes, (todo_nodes, done_nodes, ready, done)

Next you will want to add the implementation of the _submit_job() method referenced in _run(). This method will create and submit jobs to AWS Batch with the following:

  • Correctly specified upstream dependencies
  • A unique job name
  • The corresponding command to run, namely kedro run --node <node_name>.

Once submitted, the method tracks progress and surfaces any errors if the jobs end in FAILED state.

Make sure the contents below are placed inside the AWSBatchRunner class:

    def _submit_job(
        node: Node,
        node_to_job: Dict[Node, str],
        node_dependencies: Set[Node],
        run_id: str,
    ) -> Node:"Submitting the job for node: %s", str(node))

        job_name = f"kedro_{run_id}_{}".replace(".", "-")
        depends_on = [{"jobId": node_to_job[dep]} for dep in node_dependencies]
        command = ["kedro", "run", "--node",]

        response = self._client.submit_job(
            containerOverrides={"command": command},

        job_id = response["jobId"]
        node_to_job[node] = job_id

        _track_batch_job(job_id, self._client)  # make sure the job finishes

        return node

The last part of the implementation is the helper function _track_batch_job(), called from _submit_job(), which looks like this:

def _track_batch_job(job_id: str, client: Any) -> None:
    """ Continuously poll the Batch client for a job's status,
    given the job ID. If it ends in FAILED state, raise an exception
    and log the reason. Return if successful.
    while True:
        # we don't want to bombard AWS with the requests
        # to not get throttled

        jobs = client.describe_jobs(jobs=[job_id])["jobs"]
        if not jobs:
            raise ValueError(f"Job ID {job_id} not found.")

        job = jobs[0]
        status = job["status"]

        if status == "FAILED":
            reason = job["statusReason"]
            raise Exception(
                f"Job {job_id} has failed with the following reason: {reason}"

        if status == "SUCCEEDED":

Update CLI implementation

You’re nearly there! Before being able to use the new runner, update the run() function in your file to make sure the runner class is instantiated correctly:

def run(tag, env, parallel, ...):
    """Run the pipeline."""
    if parallel and runner:
        raise KedroCliError(
            "Both --parallel and --runner options cannot be used together. "
            "Please use either --parallel or --runner."
    runner = runner or "SequentialRunner"
    if parallel:
        runner = "ParallelRunner"

    tag = _get_values_as_tuple(tag) if tag else tag
    node_names = _get_values_as_tuple(node_names) if node_names else node_names

    context = load_context(Path.cwd(), env=env, extra_params=params)
    runner_instance = _instantiate_runner(runner, is_async, context)

where the helper function _instantiate_runner() looks like this:

def _instantiate_runner(runner, is_async, project_context):
    runner_class = load_obj(runner, "kedro.runner")
    runner_kwargs = dict(is_async=is_async)

    if runner.endswith("AWSBatchRunner"):
        batch_kwargs = project_context.params.get("aws_batch") or {}

    return runner_class(**runner_kwargs)


You’re now ready to trigger the run. Execute the following command:

kedro run --env aws_batch --runner kedro_tutorial.runner.AWSBatchRunner

You should start seeing jobs appearing on your Jobs dashboard, under the Runnable tab - meaning they’re ready to start as soon as the resources are provisioned in the compute environment.

AWS Batch has native integration with CloudWatch, where you can check the logs for a particular job. You can either click on the Batch job in the Jobs tab and click View logs in the pop-up panel, or go to CloudWatch dashboard, click Log groups in the side bar and find /aws/batch/job.